Greece is located (Ancient Greek Location) at the southeast end of Europe and it is the southernmost country of the Balkan Peninsula. It is located in the South-East of Europe and it has borders with Turkey to the east, Bulgaria, and Albania in the north, and with Italy in the West.

Greece basically is made up of a huge mainland which is at the southern tip of the Balkans, the peninsula of Peloponnesus and also several islands which include Rhodes, Crete, Euboea, Dodecanese, Kos and also the Ionian sea islands. This country has around 15,000 kilometres of coastline and also a huge boundary which is around 1,160 kilometres.

Ancient Greek Location

Athens, a city with more than 3.5 million residents, is the capital of Greece.It is a country with great natural beauty as well as a long and glorious history. Greece is referred to as a southern European country because geographically she is part of this region.

There are three main Geographical features to Greece:

The geographical extent of Greece was defined according to its location in the Balkan Peninsula. The Greek islands lay to the southeastern corner of Europe and were segregated into two peninsulas, Peloponnesus and Attica In ancient times, Greece comprised mountainous terrain and a very rugged coastline. These physical features have shaped the living patterns, practices, outlook towards the world, culture, politics, economy, etc. of the ancient Greeks


The major mountain range of Greece is Olympus, separating Thessaly from Macedonia. Its highest peak rises to 2,919 m above sea level, making it the second highest of the entire Balkan peninsula after peak Musala in the Rila Mountain.

Physical divisions of Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was divided into divisions and subdivisions which exhibited their own specific types of physical features and landscapes, resulting in differential growth of these states. The cities in a particular area or physical zone had more in common with each other, experiencing common leadership or governments at different stages in the ancient Greek ages.

Central Greece

The central, as well as western ancient Greek geography, is considered to be a sea of high steep peaks which are broken down by canyons and other landscapes which include the Meteora and also the Vikos gorge. It is located to the north of Peloponnese covering an area of about 24,000 km,

This, later on, became the second largest gorge on earth following the Grand Canyon. The highest point in ancient Greek geography was Olympus which was around 2,919 meters above sea level.

Apart from hills and mountains it also consisted of a large number of lakes and rivers with the second largest river of Greece, Acheloos flowing through the region.


Northern Greece

Northern Greece was also represented by the Rhodope which was located in the eastern part of Macedonia as well as Thrace. The area was covered with thick and vast forests like the famous Dadia.

The plans would mostly be found in the Eastern part of Thessaly, Thrace and also Central Macedonia. Around 80 per cent of the ancient Greek land was covered by vegetation which varies from place to place. The variety includes everything ranging from coniferous to Mediterranean type.


The Peloponnese is the southern part of Greece and the largest peninsula in Greece surrounded by the Ionian sea, Aegean sea, the Mediterranean sea and the Corinthian gulf. It is connected to the Greek mainland only through a narrow strip of land known as the isthmus of Corinth.

Most of the lands are mountainous but it also consists of the most fertile lands in the Messenian which was a part of the Spartan empire and became one reason for its powers. The mountain rivers water these areas and create patches of fertile lands.


Thessaly was an area starting from Mount Olympus in the north to Spercheios in the south. It is a diverse region with wide oland in the middle and mountains in the surrounding areas. It consists of Pindos mountain in the west, Mount Othrys in the south, Pelion ranges in the east and Mount Olympus in the north.

The plains were very fertile and ideal for the cultivation of food grains. We even get to know the practice of horses in the zone during the time of Alexander.


Macedonia was the northernmost area of Greece and it comprised the western and central regions of modern Macedonia. It sat on fertile alluvial lands watered by Haliacmon and Axius.

It lay to the north of Thessaly and east of Epirus. To its north lay the lands of the Paeoniansand the Illyrians. It was laid out of the Greek corpus of politics and writings because of its peripheral location before coming into prominence during the Hellenistic period.


There are a lot of small islands scattered around the Greek mainland which were also a big part of the ancient Greek world. There are certain groupings of islands like the Cyclades islands, the Dodecanese, and the Northern Aegean islands. These islands became a great part of political games in the ancient Greek world and were a big reason for the Peloponnesian war. It also conisted of the colonies captured by powerful naval states like Athens which was a huge source of revenue for the states and also a reason for their prosperity.

The Hellenic Republic of Greece

The Hellenic Republic of Greece is rich with history, tradition, and archeological sites dating back thousands of years to classical ancient Greece. The major mountain range of Greece is Olympus, separating Thessaly from Macedonia. Its highest peak rises to 2,919 m above sea level, making it the second highest of the entire Balkan peninsula after peak Musala in the Rila Mountain.

Athens, the capital, was located in the peninsula of Attica, while Sparta, a very famous city-state was within the Peloponnesus peninsula. Athens is protected by a ring of mountains: Hymittos, Aegaleo, Penteli, and Parnitha. In ancient times, the River Cephisus flowed through the city.

Ancient Athens occupied a very small area compared to the sprawling metropolis of modern Athens. The walled ancient city encompassed an area measuring about 2 kilometers from east to west and slightly less than that from north to south, although at its peak the city had suburbs extending well beyond these walls.

How did ancient Greece’s Location affect its development?

Ancient Greek lands were covered with mountains and it accounted for at least 80 per cent of its lands making the connection between Greek cities very difficult. The roads were also very difficult and the best way for communication was through the seas which made overseas communication easier. This aspect of geography led to the development of Greek states quite isolated into city-states with their various political structures, economy and culture.

Another effect of such mountainous land was the difficulty in agriculture with only 20 per cent of land fit for growing crops. The Greek farmers also grew olives which could be easily grown on mountain slopes. Cereals were hard to grow in ancient Greece which often led to scarcity.

The scarcity in food was again the reason for their frequent warfare for capturing lands which would generate surplus wealth for their economy and so states like Athens based their prosperity on their colonies supplying them with great wealth and tributes.

The easy access to seas also made trade easy for Greek states which led to a very prosperous overseas trade and was a huge reason for its great riches and spread of Greek culture worldwide.