Athens which still stands today as the capital of modern Greece was once a thriving and prosperous ancient city in the Greek world which was said to built by Athena, the Greek god of wisdom and Poseidon, the Greek god of Seas and has been inhabited continuously for over 3000 years, with it earliest inhabitants going back to Neolithic around end of 4th century BCE.

Athens was the most highlighted state of Greece. The people of Ancient Athens city considered themselves to be the shining star of Athens. Their culture flourished beyond measure. As a result which were born rich literature, poetry, and wonderful pieces of drama were. The Ancient City of Athens Greece also contained schools, and buildings and it was an extremely well-governed state.

Where was Ancient Athens located?

Ancient Athens was located in the centre of the Cephesian Plain, about 20km inside from the Saronic Gulf and was surrounded by rivers, making it a fertile area.

Ancient was much smaller than the modern city of Athens and the walled ancient city was about 2km from east to west, and a bit less from north to south. The Acropolis stood at the southern part of the walled city, while the commercial and social centre, the Agora stood to the north of the Acropolis.

How did Athens became the most powerful state? 

Athens because of its central position in the Greek world, access to the, sea and its secure position in the stronghold of Acropolis, emerged as a prosperous city by the 8th century among the Greek city-states giving them an advantage over their rival states like Thebes and Sparta. They also with the help of their superior naval power colonized many areas like fertile Attica, which added to their prosperity.


ancient greece city states

Ancient Athens city was not all that flourished from the very beginning. The culture that we are familiar with, took shape gradually. In the very beginning, Athens was a village where Ionian people lived. This was a period before the dark ages. It was only after the dark ages that this city flourished and became of one the most powerful stine of Greece.


Acropolis of Ancient Athens

The Acropolis of Ancient was the citadel of the ancient city located on a rocky outcrop above the city and consists of many buildings and architectural structures of historical importance. It was used as Fortress and military base during the Neolithic p se  and later became a religious centre during the Mycenean times dedicated to Athena, the goddess of wisdom. It is said to have been a place dedicated only to the gods by the oracle and stopped inhabitation of the people.

Some of were destroyed by the Persians during the battle of Salamis in 480BC and were rebuilt by the legendary, Pericles in the 5th century which made it the ultimate achievement of classical Greek architecture. it consists of many temples like the Erectheion, temple of Athena ,Nike and the Parthenon making it one of the legendary architectural monuments of Ancient Greece.

What is the main focus of physical education during ancient Greece in city-states of Athens?

Athens was among the two states in the ancient Greek who who gave importance to physical education. Physical education in Athens consisted of running, leaping, jumping, javelin throwing, military drills, wrestling, hunting and horseback riding.

the Athens, Physical education was necessary all-round development of mental, moral and physical excellence. Their emphasis was on the beauty of physique.  

Rise of a city-state like Athens and Sparta in Ancient Greece

Geography played a major role in the formation city-state of Ancient Greece. It consisted of many Rocky, mountainous terrain and islands which led to the population living in relative isolation from each other due to the Physical barriers which led to cultural different states coming up like Athens and Sparta from around 750 BC.

How was Ancient Athens city of Greece different from the state of Sparta?

Ancient Athens city was quite different from the state of Sparta. The two states differed on quite a few factors but the most prominent difference between them is:
1. The people of Sparta were known for their military strength.

2. On the other hand, the Ancient City of Athens Greece was known for its intellectual pursuits. The people were consumed with producing great works of literature and other forms of arts and for their scientific outlook.


God of Greece

Each of the city-states in Athens was ruled by a God or by a Goddess thus the Greeks believed. Ancient Greece Athens was ruled by Athena. She was considered to be the goddess of wisdom who bestowed her powers upon the people owing to which they constructed such magnificent works of arts and science. Probably it is for this reason that the people of Athens emphasized so much on education.

However, the people of the city had conservative notions when it came to the girls. They were confined to their houses. They learned household work from their mothers at home. They were denied many rights that the men enjoyed. For example, they were denied the right to vote, the right to possess property, etc.

Ancient Athens houses in greece

Boys’ education was stressed by the parents. At an early age, they were taught at home. When they were 7 years of age they were sent to schools. They attended school up until the age of 14.

In schools they were taught the poems of Homer, they were taught how to read, and write, they were taught how to do public speaking, solve mathematics, etc. in middle school they were taught science, math, and how the government machinery functions.