Ancient Greek Rulers: Hippias (527 510 B.C.) was the eldest son of Pisistratus. Hippias governed Athens after the death of his father. His younger brother Hipparchus was closely associated in office with him until Hipparchus was assassinated in 514 B.C.
Ancient Greek Rulers
At first, Hippias attempted to work with his opponents, the Alcmaeonidae, but his Ancient Greek Rulers became harsher with the advancement of the Persians. In 510 B.C. he was overthrown by the Alcmaeonidae and the Spartans and went into exile. He lived at the court of Darius and was with the Persian forces at Marathon.
List of Greek kings
Hipparchus (c.555514 B.C) was an Athenian political figure and the younger son of Pisistratus. After the death of his father, he was closely associated with his brother Hippias, autocrat of Athens, in ruling the Athenian city-state. Under Hippias, he was a patron of the arts and sponsored poets like Anacreon and Simonides. He was assassinated by Harmodius and Aristogiton because of his personal vices.
Themistocles (c.525462 B.C) was an Athenian statesman and also a naval commander. He was elected one of the three archons in 493 B.C. In succeeding years, many of his rivals were eliminated by ostracism and he became the chief figure of Athenian politics. He persuaded the Athenians to build up their navy.
Although the Greek fleet was entrusted to a Spartan, Themistocles determined its strategy, thus bringing about the decisive victory of Salamis and the retreat of Xerxes to Persia.
A purported copy of Themistocles’ decree to evacuate Athens, discovered at Troezen in 1959, indicates that the evacuation, as well as the battle of Salamis, was not hastily planned but was a measure carefully conceived months before to trap the Persians at Salamis.
Themistocles dedicated his reign to strengthen the navy and the fortifications. Around 471, after his opponents came to power, he was exiled. In his last few years, he lived in Persia, where King Artaxerxes made generous provision for him.
Cimon was an Athenian general, statesman and the son of Miltiades. He fought at Salamis Between 478 to 477 he helped Aristides from the Delian League. He conquered Skiros, pacified Asia Minor, and in 468 defeated the Persian sea and land forces on the Eurymedon River.
On the death of Aristides, he led the Athenian aristocratic and pro-Spartan party and was its chief statesman in succession to Themistocles. He was later sent into exile, from which he was recalled in 451 to conclude a peace with Sparta.
Cleisthenes was an Athenian statesman. He was the head of his family, the Alcmaeonidae, after the exile of Hippias, and with Spartan, help had made himself undisputed ruler of Athens by 506 B.C.
He established a more democratic constitution by weakening the clan system and the local parties and by organizing the districts into political rather than social divisions. The Alcmaeonidae thus became leaders of a democratic party.An attempt of his rival, Isagoras, to overturn the reforms of Cleisthenes after Cleisthenes had been sent into exile failed, and Cleisthenes was recalled.
Pericles was a member of the Alcmaeonidae family through his mother who was Cleisthenes, a niece. He first came to prominence as an opponent of the Areopagus (462) and as one of the prosecutors of Cimon, whom he replaced in influence. From then on he was the popular leader in Athens.
When he was in Athens between campaigns, Pericles carried through a number of reforms which advanced democracy. As a result, all officials in Athens were paid salaries by the state and every office was opened to most citizens.
He was a great patron of the arts and encouraged drama and music. Under his direction monuments like the Parthenon and the Propylaea on the Acropolis were constructed. Pericles established colonies at Thurii in Italy and at Amphipolis. He was one of the participants in the events that led to the Peloponnesian War.